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Clinical Tests for Shoulder

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Clinical Tests for Shoulder
Shoulder Examination TestsShoulder Examination Tests
Anterior Apprehension TestAnterior Apprehension Test
Anterior Drawer TestAnterior Drawer Test
Biceps Load TestBiceps Load Test
Biceps Load Test 2Biceps Load Test 2
Empty Can/Full Can TestEmpty Can/Full Can Test
Hawkins-Kennedy TestHawkins-Kennedy Test
Inferior Sulcus TestInferior Sulcus Test
Jobe Relocation TestJobe Relocation Test
Lift-Off TestLift-Off Test
Load & Shift TestLoad & Shift Test
Neer Impingement SignNeer Impingement Sign
OBriens TestOBriens Test
Pain Provocation TestPain Provocation Test
Posterior Drawer TestPosterior Drawer Test
SLAPprehension TestSLAPprehension Test
Speeds TestSpeeds Test
Yergasons TestYergasons Test
Brachial Plexus ExaminationBrachial Plexus Examination
The Shoulder Symptom Modification Procedure (SSMP)The Shoulder Symptom Modification Procedure (SSMP)

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Hawkins-Kennedy Test

Jo Gibson, 2005

Originally described in the 1980's the Hawkins and Kennedy test was interpreted as indicative of impingement between the greater tuberosity of the humerus against the coraco- humeral ligament, trapping all those structures which intervene. It has been reported as less reliable than the Neer impingement test.


The patient is examined in sitting with their arm at 90 and their elbow flexed to 90, supported by the examiner to ensure maximal relaxation. The examiner then stabilises proximal to the elbow with their outside hand and with the other holds just proximal to the patient's wrist. They then quickly move the arm into internal rotation.

click for video


Pain located to the sub-acromial space

False Positive

- Internal impingement Macdonald et al (2000)
- Bankart 25%
- SLAP 46.1 %


Valadie et al (cadaver study) describe consistent contact between the soft tissues and the coraco-acromialligament and between the articular surface of the rotator cuff and the anterior superior glenoid during the Hawkin' s and Kennedy test. Edelson and Teitz (2000) examined a large number of skeletal specimens and reported contact between the lesser tuberosity and antero- superior glenoid in the Hawkin' s and Kennedy test position.

  Sensitivity  Specificity Accuracy PPV NPV
Calis et al (%) 92.1 25 72.8 75.2 56.2
Ure et al (%) 62 69 NA NA NA

Roberts et al(2002) used MRI to identify and measure the changes in anatomic structures in the subacromial space as the arm was moved from complete rest to 160 of forward flexion during the Hawkin's and Neer impingement manoeuvres. The rotator cuff insertion appeared to be in closest proximity to the anteroinferior acromion not at full elevation (Neer sign position) but at 90 offlexion (Hawkin's sign position). They concluded that their data suggested that a clinically positive Hawkin' s sign is consistent with external shoulder impingement.


at the top; towards the head
Superior Labral Antero-Posterior lesion - Abbreviated term for an injury to the superior labrum of the glenoid.
A tough band of connective tissue that connects two bones to each other. "Ligament" is a fitting term; it comes from the Latin "ligare" meaning "to bind or tie."
at the botom; towards the feet
bone of the upper arm - connecting the shoulder to the elbow
A Bankart lesion is an injury to the anterior glenoid labrum associated with anterior shoulder dislocations. It usually requires surgical repair. It is named after Arthur Sydney Blundell Bankart, an English orthopaedic surgeon, who lived from 1879-1951.
at the front; in front

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