Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint and epiphyseal disruption of the medial clavicle with posterior displacement in sports participants
Authors: J.-M. Laffosse, A. Espié, N. Bonnevialle, P. Mansat, J.-L. Tricoire, P. Bonnevialle, P. Chiron, and J. Puget
References: J Bone Joint Surg Br 2010 92-B: 103-109.
We retrospectively analysed the clinical results of 30 patients with injuries of the sternoclavicular joint at a minimum of 12 months' follow-up. A closed reduction was attempted in 14 cases. It was successful in only five of ten dislocations, and failed in all four epiphyseal disruptions. A total of 25 patients underwent surgical reduction, in 18 cases in conjunction with a stabilisation procedure.
At a mean follow-up of 60 months, four patients were lost to follow-up. The functional results in the remainder were satisfactory, and 18 patients were able to resume their usual sports activity at the same level. There was no statistically significant difference between epiphyseal disruption and sternoclavicular dislocation (p > 0.05), but the functional scores (Simple Shoulder Test, Disability of Arm, Shoulder, Hand, and Constant scores) were better when an associated stabilisation procedure had been performed rather than reduction alone (p = 0.05, p = 0.04 and p = 0.07, respectively).
We recommend meticulous pre-operative clinical assessment with CT scans. In sternoclavicular dislocation managed within the first 48 hours and with no sign of mediastinal complication, a closed reduction can be attempted, although this was unsuccessful in half of our cases. A control CT scan is mandatory. In all other cases, and particularly if epiphyseal disruption is suspected, we recommend open reduction with a stabilisation procedure by costaclavicular cerclage or tenodesis. The use of a Kirschner wire should be avoided.