Arthroscopic versus open treatment of Bankart lesion of the shoulder: A prospective randomized study
Authors: Carlo Fabbriciani, M.D., Giuseppe Milano, M.D., Antonio Demontis, M.D., Salvatore Fadda, M.D., Fabio Ziranu, M.D., Pier Damiano Mulas, M.D.
References: Arthroscopy 2004 May;20(5):456-62.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the results of arthroscopic and open repair of isolated Bankart lesions of the shoulder using metallic suture anchors. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective randomized clinical study. METHODS: Sixty patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability underwent a surgical repair of an isolated Bankart lesion. The patients were divided into 2 groups of 30 patients each. In group 1, an arthroscopic repair was performed, and in group 2, an open procedure was performed. The groups were homogeneous for gender, age, dominance, number of dislocations, time elapsed between first dislocation and surgery, and pathologic findings. In all cases of both groups, the lesion was repaired using metallic suture anchors carrying nonabsorbable braided sutures. Postoperative rehabilitation was the same for the 2 groups. Two years' follow-up evaluation included Constant and Rowe shoulder scores. Statistical analysis of data was performed using an unpaired t test (significance for P <.05). RESULTS: No recurrence of dislocation of the involved shoulder has been reported in either group. Follow-up Constant and Rowe scores of the 2 groups were not significantly different. The only significant difference seen between the 2 groups was for range of motion evaluation with the Constant score. The mean value for group 1 (39.6 +/- 0.8) was significantly greater (P =.017) than that for group 2 (37.8 +/- 2.0). CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopic repair with suture anchors is an effective surgical technique for the treatment of an isolated Bankart lesion. Open repair does not offer a significantly better 2-year result in terms of stability, and furthermore, can negatively affect the recovery of full range of motion of the shoulder. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I.