Evaluation and management of acromioclavicular joint injuries.
Authors: Dumonski M, Mazzocca AD, Rios C, Romeo AA, Arciero RA.
References: Am J Orthop. 2004 Oct;33(10):526-32.
The acromioclavicular joint is stabilized by the coracoclavicular and acromioclavicular ligaments and by the trapezius and deltoid muscles. Joint dislocation commonly results from a direct blow to the acromion. Injury types I through III are generally treated nonoperatively, whereas types IV through VI are treated operatively. Nonoperative protocols should always begin with ice and immobilization. Operative techniques include acromioclavicular ligament repair, dynamic transfer of the conjoined tendon, coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction, and coracoacromial ligament transfer. The goal with any injury type should always be full return to the patient's preinjury condition.