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Normalization of the Constant score

Authors: Leonid I. Katolik, Anthony A. Romeo, Brian J. Cole, Nikhil N. Verma, Jennifer K. Hayden, Bernard R. Bach

References: J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2005 May-Jun;14(3):279-85.

Abstract
The strength of the normal shoulder may differ by gender and deteriorate with age. Thus, the Constant score may also decrease in absolute value while still reflecting a normal score. To account for age- and gender-related differences, normal results for this scale must be determined across a population of patients without shoulder disease. Patients presenting for evaluation of nonshoulder conditions participated. A subjective questionnaire was completed. Range of motion and strength were measured. This analysis includes the data of 441 patients. The mean Constant score for men was significantly greater than that for women in each age group (P < .05). Significant age-related differences were noted in each group (P < .05). Normative values for the Constant score based on age and gender were determined. The adjusted score represents the gender- and age-matched function of the shoulder and is useful in the evaluation of shoulder outcomes.

Normal Constant scores


Age (y) Men Women
Study  Constant(Ref) Study Constant(Ref)
18-29 95 98 88 97
30-39 95 93 87 90
40-49 96 92 86 80
50-59 94 90 84 73
60-69 92 83 83 70
>70 88 75 81 69


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