Frozen Shoulder Classifications

  1. Frozen shoulder: Lundberg classification
  2. Stages of frozen shoulder: Reeves
  3. Arthroscopic stages of adhesive capsulitis: Neviaser

Frozen Shoulder: Lundberg Classification
Lundberg BJ, Acta Orthop Scand suppl, 119: 1-59, 1969

A. Primary frozen shoulder:

  • Shoulder elevation <135 deg
  • Limitation of movement only at gleno-humeral articulation
  • Radiology normal
  • Other causes ie trauma, OA, RA, Hemiplegia etc excluded
B. Secondary frozen shoulder:
  • Decreased range of movement following trauma or other known cause


Stages of Frozen Shoulder: Reeves
Reeves B, Scand J Rheumatol, 4: 193-196, 1975
  1. Painful stage: 10-36 weeks
  2. Stiffness: 4-12 months
  3. Recovery: 5-24 months


Arthroscopic stages of Frozen Shoulder: Nevasier
Neviaser, Orthop Clin North Am, 18:439-443, 1987

Stage 1:  Erythematous/ fibrinous synovium
              patient presents as impingement
Stage 2:  Red, angry, thick synovium,
              thick, contracted interval, tight 
              joint space adhesions in the inferior fold
Stage 3:  Pink synovium
              contracted inferior fold, tight joint space
Stage 4:  no evidence of synovitis
              tight inferior fold and joint


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