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References

1. Funk, L. (2003) Shoulder arthroscopy. Available at:
URL: http:// www.shoulderdoc.co.uk/education/article.asp?article=61
Accessed March 24th, 2005.
2. Gollogly, S., Smith, J. T., West, H. S. Jr. (2001) Shoulder Surgery – Shoulder Arthroscopy. Available at:
URL: http://www.shouldersolutions.com/surgery_2.php
Accessed March 24th, 2005.
3. Hulstyn, M. J., Fadale, P. D. (1995) Arthroscopic anatomy of the shoulder. Orthop Clin North Am. 26(4): 597-612.
4. Ahlfeld Sports Medicine Center. Shoulder joint anatomy. Available at:
URL: http://www.yoursportsdoc.com/pages-subsections/ht_shoulder_anat_1.html
Accessed March 24th, 2005.
5. Snyder, S. J. (2003) Shoulder Arthroscopy. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 311pp.
6. Matthews, L. S., Terry, G., Vetter, W. L. (1985). Shoulder anatomy for the arthroscopist. Arthroscopy. 1(2): 83-91.
7. Ly, J. Q., Bui-Mansfield, L. T., Kline, M. J., DeBerardino, T. M., Taylor, D. C. (2004) Bare Area of the glenoid: magnetic resonance appearance with arthroscopic correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(2): 229-232.
8. Warner, J. J., Bowen, M. K., Deng, X. H., Hannafin, J. A., Arnoczky, S. P., Warren, R. F. (1998) Articular contact patterns of the normal glenohumeral joint. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 7(4): 381-388.
9. Bunker, T. D., Wallace, W. A. (1991) Shoulder Arthroscopy.  Martin Dunitz, London 166pp.
10. Tenesse Orthopaedic Alliance, The Lipscomb Clinic Sports Medicine Center (2004) Shoulder Arthroscopy. Available at:
URL:  http://lipscombclinic.com/sports/Articles/SurgicalProcedures/surgical.htm
Accessed March 24th, 2005.
11. Burman (1901-1976), M. S., Peltier, L. F. (2001) Arthroscopy or the direct visualisation of joints: An experimental cadaver study. Clin Orthop. 1(390): 5-9.
12. Nottage, W. M. (1993) Arthroscopic anatomy of the glenohumeral joint and subacromial bursa. Orthop Clin North Am. 24(1): 27-32.
13. Davidson, P. A., Rivenburgh, D. W. (2004) Mobile superior glenoid labrum: a normal variant or pathologic condition? Am J Sports Med. 32(4): 962-966.
14. Van Kampen, A., De Waal Malefijit, M. C., Jerosch, J., Castro, W. H. M., Busch, M., Pape, M. (1998) Knee Surg, Sports Traumatol, Arthrosc. 6: 16-20.
15. Ethans, K. D., Leahey, J. L. (2001) Congenital bilateral absence of the elbow flexors. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 80(10): 759-61.
16. Glueck, D. A., Mair, S. D., Johnson, D. L. (2003) Shoulder instability with absence of the long head of the biceps tendon. Arthroscopy. 19(7): 787-9.
17. Smith, E. L., Matzkin, E. G., Kim, D. H., Harpstrite, J. K., Kan, D. M. (2002) Congenital absence of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon as a VATER association. Am J Orthop. 31(8): 452-4
18. Mariani, P. P., Bellelli, A., Botticella, C. (1997) Arthroscopic absence of the long head of the biceps tendon. Arthroscopy. 13(4): 499-501.
19. Prescher, A., Klümpen, T. (1997) The glenoid notch and its relation to the shape of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. J Anat. 190 (Pt 3):457-460.
20. Cooper, D. E., Arnoczky, S. P., O'Brien, S. J., Warren, R. F., DiCarlo, E., Allen, A. A. (1992) Anatomy, histology, and vascularity of the glenoid labrum. An anatomical study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 74(1): 46-52.
21. Lee, S. B., Harryman, D. T. II (1997) Superior detachment of a glenoid labrum variant resembling an incomplete discoid meniscus in a wheelchair ambulator. Arthroscopy. 13(4): 511-514.
22. Rao, A. G., Kim, T. K., Chronopoulos, E., McFarland, E. G. (2003) Anatomical variants in the anterosuperior aspect of the glenoid labrum: a statistical analysis of seventy-three cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85-A (4): 653-9. 24
23. Williams, M. M., Snyder, S. J., Buford, D. Jr. (1994) The Buford complex--the "cord-like" middle glenohumeral ligament and absent anterosuperior labrum complex: a normal anatomic capsulolabral variant. Arthroscopy. 10(3): 241-247. 25
24. IIahi, O. A., Labbe, M. R., Cosculluela, P. (2002) Variants of the anterosuperior glenoid labrum and associated pathology. Arthroscopy. 18(8): 882-886. 26
25. Ide, J., Maeda, S., Takagi, K. (2004) Normal variations of the glenohumeral ligament complex: an anatomic study for arthroscopic Bankart repair. Arthroscopy. 20(2): 164-168. 29
26. Park, Y. H., Lee, J. Y., Moon, S. H., Mo, J. H., Yang, B. K., Hahn, S. H., Resnick, D. (2000). MR Arthrography of the labral capsular ligamentous complex in the shoulder: imaging variations and pitfalls. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 175(3): 667-672. 28
27. Yeh, L., Kwak, S., Kim, Y. S., Pedowitz, R., Trudell, D., Muhle, C., Resnick, D. (1998) Anterior labroligamentous structures of the glenohumeral joint: correlation of MR arthrography and anatomic dissection in cadavers. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(5): 1229-1236. 27
28. DePalma, A. F. (1973) Surgery of the Shoulder. 2nd Edition. JB Lipencott, Philadelphia. Cited by Matthews, L. S., Terry, G., Vetter, W. L. (1985). Shoulder anatomy for the arthroscopist. Arthroscopy. 1(2): 83-91. 8
29. Chandnani, V. P., Gagliardi, J. A., Murnane, T. G., Bradley, Y. C., DeBererdino, T. A., Spaeth, J., Hansen, M. F. (1995) Glenohumeral ligaments and shoulder capsular mechanism: evaluation with MR arthrography. Radiology. 196(1): 27-32. 47
30. Steinbeck, J., Liljenqvist, U., Jerosch, J. (1998) The anatomy of the glenohumeral ligamentous complex and its contribution to anterior shoulder stability. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 7(2): 122-126. 40
31. Moseley, H. F., Overgaard, B. (1962) The anterior capsular mechanism in recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Morphological and clinical studies with special references to the glenoid labrum and the gleno-humeral ligaments. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 44B(4): 913-927. 18
32. DePalma, A. F. (1983) Regional, variational and surgical anatomy. In: Surgery of the shoulder. Editor. DePalma, A. F.  3rd edition. pp 35-64. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia. Cited by Ide, J., Maeda, S., Takagi, K. (2004) Normal variations of the glenohumeral ligament complex: an anatomic study for arthroscopic Bankart repair. Arthroscopy. 20(2): 164-168. 46
33. Turkel, S. J., Panio, M. W., Marchall, J., Girgis, F. G. (1981) Stabilzing mechanisms preventing anterior dislocation of the gleno-humeral joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 63A: 1208-1217. 42
34. Matthews, L. S., Terry, G., Vetter, W. L. (1985). Shoulder anatomy for the arthroscopist. Arthroscopy. 1(2): 83-91. 9

35. Morgan, C. D. (1998) Anterior shoulder instability; arthroscopic anatomy and pathology. In: Esch J. C., Eds. Proceedings of the 15th Annual San Diego Meeting, Arthroscopic Surgery of the Shoulder. San Diego: San Diego Shoulder Arthroscopy 119-123. Cited by Ide, J., Maeda, S., Takagi, K. (2004) Normal variations of the glenohumeral ligament complex: an anatomic study for arthroscopic Bankart repair. Arthroscopy. 20(2): 164-168. 49
36. O'Brien, S. J., Neves, M. C., Arnoczky, S. P., Rozbruck, S. R., Dicarlo, E. F., Warren, R. F., Schwartz, R., Wickiewicz, T. L. (1990) The anatomy and histology of the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex of the shoulder. Am J Sports Med. 18(5): 449-56. 53

 


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7. Bunker, T. D., Wallace, W. A. (1991) Shoulder Arthroscopy.  Martin Dunitz, London 166pp.
8. DePalma, A. F. (1973) Surgery of the Shoulder. 2nd Edition. JB Lipencott, Philadelphia. Cited by Matthews, L. S., Terry, G., Vetter, W. L. (1985). Shoulder anatomy for the arthroscopist. Arthroscopy. 1(2): 83-91.
9. Matthews, L. S., Terry, G., Vetter, W. L. (1985). Shoulder anatomy for the arthroscopist. Arthroscopy. 1(2): 83-91.
10. Nottage, W. M. (1993) Arthroscopic anatomy of the glenohumeral joint and subacromial bursa. Orthop Clin North Am. 24(1): 27-32.
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18. Moseley, H. F., Overgaard, B. (1962) The anterior capsular mechanism in recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Morphological and clinical studies with special references to the glenoid labrum and the gleno-humeral ligaments. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 44B(4): 913-927.
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